The Peace of Cateau-Cambresis
Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, (April 3, 1559), agreement marking the end of the 65-year (1494–1559) struggle between France and Spain for the control of Italy, leaving Habsburg Spain the dominant power there for the next 150 years. In the last phase of the war, fought mostly outside of Italy, France was beaten at the battles of Saint-Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558). These defeats, coupled with the beginning of the religious struggle between the Roman Catholics and the Huguenots in France, and the financial difficulties of both powers, led to the peace. Henry II of France restored Savoy and Piedmont to Spain’s ally, Emmanuel-Philibert of Savoy; Henry also restored Corsica to Genoa and renounced his hereditary claim to Milan. Although France finally gave up its claims to Italian territory and Spain retained the predominant position in Italy that it had secured in the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529, France managed to retain five fortresses, including Turin, Saluzzo, and Pignerol. Elsewhere, France also retained the three bishoprics of Toul, Metz, and Verdun, which it had captured from the Habsburg emperor Charles V in 1552, and Calais, which it had taken from Spain’s allies the English in 1558.