The War of the Spanish Succession
From 1701 to 1714, a conflict arose out of the disputed succession to the throne of Spain following the death of the childless Charles II, the last of the Spanish Habsburgs. In an effort to regulate the impending succession, to which there were three principal claimants, England, the Dutch Republic, and France had in October 1698 signed the First Treaty of Partition, agreeing that on the death of Charles II, Prince Joseph Ferdinand, son of the elector of Bavaria, should inherit Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the Spanish colonies. Spain’s Italian dependencies would be detached and partitioned between Austria (to be awarded the Duchy of Milan) and France (Naples and Sicily). In February 1699, however, Joseph Ferdinand died. A second treaty, signed on June 11, 1699, by England and France and in March 1700 by the Dutch Republic, awarded Spain and the Spanish Netherlands and colonies to Archduke Charles, second son of the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I, and Naples, Sicily, and other Spanish territories in Italy to France. Leopold, however, refused to sign the treaty, demanding that Charles receive all the Spanish territories intact. The Spanish grandees likewise did not recognize it, being unalterably opposed to partition. Charles II allowed himself to be convinced that only the House of Bourbon had the power to keep the Spanish possessions intact, and in the autumn of 1700 he made a will bequeathing them to Philip, duc d’Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV of France. On November 1 he died, and on November 24 Louis XIV proclaimed his grandson king of Spain, as Philip V (the first Bourbon king of Spain), and then invaded the Spanish Netherlands. An anti-French alliance was formed (September 7, 1701) by England, the Dutch Republic, and the emperor Leopold. They were later joined by Prussia, Hanover, other German states, and Portugal. The electors of Bavaria and Cologne and the dukes of Mantua and Savoy allied themselves with France, although Savoy switched sides in 1703. William III of England, a strong opponent of Louis XIV, died in 1702, but the government of his successor, Queen Anne, upheld the vigorous conduct of the war. John Churchill, duke of Marlborough, played the leading role in Queen Anne’s government and on the battlefield until his fall in 1711. He was ably seconded on the battlefield by the imperial general Prince Eugene of Savoy.
The markedly superior generalship of Marlborough and Eugene brought them a series of victories over France from 1704 to 1709. A Franco-Bavarian offensive in Germany was smashed at Blemheim in 1704. The French were then driven out of the Low Countries by the battles of Ramillies in 1706 and Oudenaarde in 1708. The French were also expelled from Italy after their attempted siege of Turin was broken (September 7, 1706) by Eugene’s brilliant campaign. The only theatre of the land war in which the alliance had no real success was Spain, where Philip V successfully maintained his position.
Louis XIV sought to end the war from 1708 and was willing to give up the Spanish inheritance to the House of Habsburg. The British, however, insisted on the unrealistic demand that Louis use his army to remove his own grandson from Spain. Louis refused, broke off negotiations, and resumed the war. Two developments in 1711 altered the situation in favour of France. On April 17, 1711, Archduke Charles became heir to all the Austrian Habsburg possessions. Britain and the Dutch had no intention of continuing the war in order to give him the Spanish inheritance as well and thereby resurrect the old empire of Charles V. In Britain the enemies of Marlborough won influence with the queen and had him removed from command on December 31, 1711. With the collapse of the alliance, peace negotiations began in 1712. Because of the conflicts of interest between the former allies, each dealt separately with France. The first group of treaties was signed at Utrecht in April 1713. These and the later treaties of Rastatt and Baden ignored the will of Charles II and divided his inheritance among the powers. Louis XIV’s grandson remained king of Spain, but the treaties of Utrecht marked the rise of the power of Britain and the British colonial empire at the expense of both France and Spain.